Wednesday, March 7, 2018

Jonathan Carver's "Travels Through The Interior Parts of North-America" (1778) - What's Available Online?

I. Introduction
II. Jonathan Carver and his Travels
III. Controversies
IV. The "Songs"
V. Bibliography

I. Introduction 

Digitization is - I think - one of the greatest watersheds in the history of research. Much of the older literature and sources have been scanned and are easily accessible online. Even the rarest books - if they have been digitized - are now immediately at hand. The use of digital facsimilés promotes transparency: every reader should be able to check the sources and references. 

Still some important questions remain: are these digital copies available in open repositories that everybody has access to or only in closed databases behind a paywall? In the latter case it is of course not possible to set a direct link to a source. Does a digital copy represent the original book in the best possible way so it can be used as a "surrogate" for the real book? Is it complete or is something missing? Unfortunately there are often problems particularly with what is offered by Google Books, the greatest open online repository. The uncritical use of a digital facsimilé is not advisable and therefore the quality and completeness should always be checked. Often many copies are available and it is necessary to search for the best one. 

Here I will try another case study. Jonathan Carver's Travels Through The Interior Parts of North-America in the Years 1766, 1767 and 1768 - first printed 1778 in London - was one of the most popular and influential travel accounts of its time. It was among the books "that revealed the Middle West to the minds of curious Europeans" (Blegen, p. 70). There were altogether 17 English editions - published in either Britain or the USA - as well as translations into German, French, Dutch and Swedish. But it was also a very controversial book and the author's reliability and credibility has been called into question. 

I needed to check this work because of the texts of some "songs" or orations that Carver claimed to have heard performed. They were later regularly reprinted or translated in both scholarly and popular publications as authentic representations of the song culture of the North American "Indians". One of them was even turned into a ballad by German poet Schiller. 

At first there will be a short introduction to Carver and his book as well as a discussion of these so-called "songs". The most important secondary literature will be referred to and in passing I will check how many of these works can be found online at the moment. This will be followed by an attempt of a bibliography with links to the digital copies of the different editions of Carver's book that are available at the moment. 

II. Jonathan Carver and his Travels 

Jonathan Carver (1710-1780; see Wikipedia; Gould at MNopedia; Parker, pp. 1-56; Gelb, pp. 1-51; Williams 1989; Wilson 1978, pp. 47-82) from Massachussetts, at first apparently a shoemaker, joined the militia in 1755. He fought in the French and Indian War until 1763, at the end as a Captain with his own company. After the war he went back home to Boston but didn't get happy with civilian life. He wanted to return to the borderlands. 

Carver had become acquainted with the legendary Major Robert Rogers who at that time planned an expedition to find the fabled Northwest Passage and hired him as a mapmaker. In May 1766 they set out for Fort Michilimackinac in present day Michigan. Rogers had to wait for authorization of his expedition - which he never received - and commissioned Carver to explore the unknown formerly French territories (see Parker 1976, pp. 192-3). 

He went west to the Mississippi and then to what is today Minnesota. There he spent a winter with a band of Dakota Indians and studied their way of life and customs. Then he traveled to Prairie du Chien at Lake Superior but there he ran out of supplies. The lack of support forced him to change his plans and he and his companions had to return to Michilimackinac where they spend the winter 1767/8. There Major Rogers was accused of treason and arrested. Carver went back to Boston. Unfortunately his efforts were not acknowledged, the commission issued by Rogers was worthless and he was not paid as promised for his work. Also his attempts at publishing his journals failed. Therefore he decided to travel to England hoping for more success there: 
"Yesterday Morning sailed for London [...] Captain Carver, formerly of the New England Troops; This Gentleman has been employed several years as a Draughtsman, and has been exploring the Heads of the Mississippi, St. Piere's, and Lake Superior; in which Service he has given great satisfaction, having made many several discoveries of considerable utility [...] He has carried with him his Draughts and Journals, and has good recommendations for his faithful Services" (Boston Weekly News-Letter, No. 356, 23.2.1769, p. 1, at AHN). 
In London Carver managed to get paid some money by the treasury and was also involved in the the production of new maps (see Bosse 1985, pp. 49-54). But for most of the time he struggled to survive and remained "a figure of little significance" (Gelb, p. 36). At least he became acquainted with Joseph Banks, well-known scholar and later president of the Royal Society, who lent some support to the publication of his book. In the end it took nearly 10 years until the Travels were published in 1778:

In fact this was an impressive work of nearly 550 pages. First there was - after an informative introduction - the "Journal of the Travels" (pp. 17-180). This is followed by an extended treatise "Of the Origin, Manners, Customs, Religion, and Language of the Indians" (pp. 181-441), vocabularies of two languages, chapters about the flora and fauna and a somewhat visionary appendix discussing the possible future colonization of these territories. Two maps and some illustrations were also included. 

Of course the book was based on Carver's original notes. But they were rewritten, edited and supplemented with information taken - without credit - from a number of earlier works by other authors. It was "in part a borrowed and generalized collage of previous travellers' descriptions of different tribes, different times, and different places" (Fulford, p. 62). He got some help from a London writer, one Alexander Bicknell, "an industrious litterateur of the last quarter of the eighteenth century (DNB 5, p. 9, at wikisource), who in ads for later works was referred to as the "compiler" (f. ex. St. James Chronicle, No. 2980, 15.-18.4.1780, at BBCN). One may describe the Travels as "a collaborative effort between two men who knew what readers wanted in travel narratives and how to satisfy their expectations" (Williams, p. 208; see Parker 1976; see also Wilson, pp. 72-82; Sayre, pp. 183-204).

Carver's book - self-published, because apparently no publisher wanted to take the risk - was a big success. The reviews were very positive (see f. ex. Critical Review 46, 1778, pp. 441-50; London Magazine 48, 1779, p. 180; Westminster Magazine 7, 1779, pp. 142-4), two new editions appeared the following year in London and in Dublin, and another one in 1780. Parts of the book were reprinted in popular magazines (see f. ex. London Review 8, 1779, pp. 377-82; Monthly Review 60, 1779, pp. 90-5 & pp. 281-9; Lady's Magazine 10, 1779, pp. 132-5 & pp. 180-2; London Magazine 48, 1779, pp. 201-2). 

Carver's name can also be found on two other books published at that time: a Treatise on the Culture of Tobacco (London 1779 [ESTC T51643]. at the Internet Archive; Dublin 1779 [ESTC T174004]) and The Universal Traveller. Containing a Full and Distinct Account of All the Empires, Kingdoms, and States, in the Known World (London 1779 [ESTC T133709], at Google Books. But the latter wasn't his work (see Gentleman's Magazine 51, 1781, p. 80). He probably lent his name to cash in on the success of his own book. 

But all this literary success didn't help him much. He died in 1780, still in poverty, and left behind two families, one in America and one in England. The following year a third edition was published to help out his wife and children in England. Responsible for this publication was Carver's last physician John Coakley Lettsom (1744-1815, see Wikipedia), philanthropist and founder of the Medical Society of London, who had bought the copyright of the book. He added an index and a rather inaccurate biography of the author (pp. 1-22). This was for a while the last British edition. Only much later, between 1798 and 1808, the Travels were printed again several times in Edinburgh and Glasgow. 

Carver never made it back to America and also missed the revolution. But his book was published there, at first in 1784 with the title Three Years Travels Throughout the Interior Parts of North America For More Than Five Thousand Miles by Crukshank in Philadelphia (at the Internet Archive) and it became very popular: seven more editions were printed until 1813. Even George Washington owned a copy (see Everett 1860, p. 298). Just like in Britain parts of the book were regularly reprinted in magazines and newspapers (see Djahazi, pp. 31). In fact he was mentioned in the press rather often and one gets the impression that he became posthumously a kind of celebrity. 

Of course the Travels were also published in other countries, at first in Germany in 1780. "Germans were rabid readers of travel accounts" and "the leading consumers of travel literature in Europe" (Apgar, p. 17). French (1784) and Dutch (1796) editions followed later. All in all this was already an impressive success for Carver's book. It was surely one of the most popular travel accounts of that era. But its life-span was prolonged and its popularity and influence increased because Joachim Heinrich Campe in Germany laid his hands on this text and turned it into one of the great classics of juvenile literature. 

Campe (1746-1818; see Wikipedia; see wikisource; see f. ex. Ewers 2010, Apgar 2008, Brune-Heiderich 1989), educator, writer, publisher, linguist and one of the inventors of modern juvenile literature, had already published Robinson der Jüngere (1779/80), his adaptation of Defoe's classic, and the first two parts of Die Entdeckung von Amerika (1781). He was the one who brought the New World to the young people. In 1785 Campe started a Sammlung interessanter und durchgängig zwekmäßig abgefaßter Reisebeschreibungen für die Jugend with original travel accounts edited and made suitable for juvenile readers. In the preface to the first volume he noted that he regarded authentic travelogues as the best reading material for adolescents to promote their knowledge of the world and human nature -"Welt- und Menschenkenntnis" - in an easy and pleasant way (see pp. [vii-viii]). 

His adaptation of Carver's Travels appeared in the fourth volume in 1788 (at the Internet Archive). It is interesting to see that he selected exactly this book to represent North America in his series. This shows how popular it was already at that time in Germany. Of course Campe edited the text a little bit to make it suitable for his purposes and also added some information from other relevant sources. This series of travel accounts was immensely successful and would be reprinted in at least 10 new editions until the 1840s. It was also translated into other languages. The French version of Campe's adaptation was first published in 1789 and reappeared in at least 13 editions until the 1870s. Additionally there were also Dutch, Swedish and even Greek translations. 

All in all Carver's Travels was one of the best known and most widely read popular books about the American West and its inhabitants. His "words defined the image of the Indians right across the 'civilized' world" (Fulford, p. 61). Campe then turned it into an entertaining and instructive educational text for young readers. Its influence should not be underestimated, particularly in Germany where it was the starting-point for the long tradition of Indian novels for children (Brune-Heiderich, p. 116) and laid the groundwork for the reception for example of James Fenimore Cooper's books and in general for what has later been called "Indianertümelei", the naive fascination with native Americans (see f. ex. Lutz 1985 & 2012). 

III. Controversies 

Carver's book was at first received very well and quickly became a standard work in this field. Travelers and scholars used it and relied on the information found there, for example William Falconer who in his Remarks on the Influence of Climate (1781, see f. ex. pp. 221, 225, 230, 235, 281 & 320) referred several times to the Travels. Indian trader John Long who spent some years in the same area was also familiar with Carver's work. He mentioned him a couple of times in his own book (1791, f. ex. pp. 62, 83 & 113) as did missionary and ethnologist John Heckewelder in his Account of the History, Manner, and Customs, of the Indian Natives (1819, at the Internet Archive). 

These are only some random examples. Throughout the 19th century the Travels were referred to in numerous popular and scholarly writings. It must have been among the most often quoted travel books about America during that time. Even towards the end of the century scholars like Danish sociologist C. N. Starcke in Die primitive Familie in ihrer Entstehung und Entwicklung (1888, here f. ex. pp. 34, 36 & 281) and American anthropologist Albert Jenks in his Wild Rice Gatherers of the Upper Lake (1901, at the Internet Archive) still made use of it. 

But already early on serious doubts about the Travels were raised (see also Quaife 1914, pp. 169-70). American scholar Benjamin Smith Barton noted in 1787 in his Observations on some Parts of Natural History that he had "long considered Mr. Carver as a person whose authority may justly be disputed" (pp. 14-5). Later Keating in his report about Stephen Long's expedition claimed that Carver's book "contains many circumstances, which might induce us to question the accuracy of his report"(1825, p. 2). Even more critical was Robert Greenhow who in his History of Oregon and California (here 2nd ed., 1845, pp. 142 & 145) stated that Carver's account of the Indians "is extracted almost entirely, and, in many parts, verbatim, from the French journals and histories". 

Detailed critiques would appear in the early 20th century. Most important in this respect was an influential article by historian E. G. Bourne in the American Historical Review in 1909 (pp. 287-302), an attempt at a devastating debunking. He showed where Carver had borrowed from earlier works and concluded that the Travels "must cease to be considered an original work" (p. 294). Lawrence J. Burpee, author of The Search for the Western Sea. The Story of the Exploration of North Western America, called Carver's book an "entertaining though untrustworthy narrative" and stated that he had "accomplished comparatively little" (1908, p. 285). 

Also Reuben Gold Thwaites, one of the foremost experts in this field at that time, didn't think much of Carver Travels. He hadn't included it in the great series Early Western Travels 1748-1846 (32 Vols., 1904-1907, available at the Internet Archive). In his history of Wisconsin (1908, pp. 125-9) he described Carver as an "ignorant shoemaker [...] incapable of writing such a book": 
"[...] it is quite evident that he kept some rough notes [...] but the often-cited part containing descriptions of Indian life and customs is a mere patchwork of selections from the journals of Hennepin, Lahontan, Charlevoix and Adair."
That was all a little bit too much, "a condemnation too sweeping" (Quaife 1914, p. 171). Others did some real research and found reasons to disagree (see part. Lee 1909 & 1913; Browning 1920). Carver's original journals were found in the British Library and much biographical detail was uncovered. He surely wasn't an "ignorant shoemaker", in fact he did write more than only "rough notes" and one historian even felt justified to claim that Carver was "vindicated" (Alvord 1913). This may have been a more realistic verdict than the indiscriminate attacks á la Bourne and Thwaites. Of course the great number of plagiarisms from other works by either Carver or his ghostwriter had to be conceded. But these kind of methods were not uncommon among travel writers in 18th century. The question that remained was what was Carver's work and what was not. But at least it seemed obvious that he in fact had been the "author of the nucleus of the published book" (Sayre 2017, p. 190). 

Three decades later Carver's reputation had to take another blow. Because of his association with the legendary Major Rogers he became a literary figure in Kenneth Roberts' Northwest Passage (1938). There he appeared as a very unpleasant character. At the end two of the books protagonists are discussing his book and they are very disappointed: 
"'Why,' I said, 'the man's not only a liar, an ingrate, a traitor; he's a thief and a fool! He's falsified every date in his book! He's twisted every fact he's told, and left out most of the things he should have told [...]'" (p. 707). 
As late as 1962 Percy Adams in his seminal Travelers and Travel Liars felt it justified to call Carver's book "largely a fake" (p. 85). This was a little bit unfair and not really convincing, in fact largely an exaggeration. He should have known better. Of course others at that time had attempted a more realistic appraisal of the Travels (see f. ex. Fridey 1954; Blegen 1963, pp. 67-70) but only after the publication of the manuscripts (Parker 1976) more serious discussions about Carver's achievements and shortcomings began to appear (see f. ex. Medeiros 1977, pp. 197-201; Wilson 1978, pp. 47-82 ; Savage 1979, pp. 42-8; Williams 1989; Sayre 2017, pp. 183-204). 

It seems that now a fairer judgment is possible even though the shadow of Bourne et al. is still looming and Carver 's reputation has not completely recovered from their attacks (see f. ex. Lutz 1985, pp. 157-8; Hochbruck, pp. 73-7). I will only mention one recent contribution to this discussion,.an otherwise interesting and informative article (Djahazi 2014). Here I read that Carver "was an imposter in so far as he publicly staged himself as the first English gentleman venturing into the American interior, a bold and trustworthy discoverer telling his fellow citizens of the land's rich prospects and its inhabitants" (p. 28). 

This is not wrong but I really do not see what's the problem here. Something like this could be said about many travel writers. Of course Carver posed as a great explorer and tried to outdo his predecessors. Of course he wanted to sell his book. And to call his expedition the "modest adventure" of an "historically rather insignificant traveler" (p. 28, also p. 42) - echoing earlier remarks by Burpee - seems to me unnecessarily condescending. Traveling several thousand miles, a considerable part of it through unknown territories, spending time with the locals to study their customs and then coming back alive with a lot of interesting information may now look like a "modest adventure" to a modern armchair academic. But I don't think I would describe it that way. 

In fact Carver's expedition was in some way groundbreaking, a "soldierly record of the earliest experience of an Englishman in that portion of the continent" (Bain, in Henry 1901, p. xxviii). He happened to be the first British traveler who set out to explore the territories just won from the French and he brought back "new and exciting information" (Medeiros, p. 197). Of course he wasn't Captain Cook or Lewis & Clark but nonetheless the results of his efforts were surely not worthless. For example his maps were used by American commissioners at the peace negotiations after the Revolutionary War (see Ahrens 2015). 

His treatise about the customs and manners "of the Indians" may be a collage but it can also be seen as a good summary of what was known at that time, even if he mixed it all up a little bit and forgot to name his sources. Carver was no scholar. But he seems to have been familiar with much of the relevant literature and he attempted a more or less objective account. Even more important was the way he wrote about the native Americans: 
"But the greatest significance of the book was its picture of the native Americans Carver met and resided among. His portrayal of the way they lived, the beliefs they held, and their human qualities did much to alter the prevailing eighteenth-century image of Indians as 'savages' [...]" (Gelb, p. 1).
His "Indians" were not "noble savages" but real persons and ordinary people. He "depicts an entirely conventional America" (Jehlen p. 130). 

IV. The "Songs" 

All in all Carver's Travels were neither a "fake" nor - of course - can they be compared to a modern ethnography. Every single piece of information has to be checked for accuracy and correctness (see f. ex. the notes in Parker's edition of the manuscripts). But this should be the case with all travel accounts. And no matter how we judge its veracity: in a historical perspective the reception of this book was more important than its "authenticity", it's "qualities" were in fact "more literary than documentary" (Djahazi, p. 30). This also applies to the so-called "songs" quoted by Carver. 

At that time poetry and songs of "exotic" peoples had already been published and discussed for more than two centuries (see this article, Ch. III, in my blog). I will only mention the two fragmentary Brazilian songs quoted by Montaigne in his Essai No. 30 "De Cannibales", the two Peruvian texts in Inca Carcilaso de la Vega's Commentarios Reales (1609) and the Lapp songs made available in Scheffer's Lapponia (1673). These pieces had become a part of the European literary tradition. 

The Baron Lahontan had quoted some war songs of the Algonquin in his New Voyages to North-America (1703, II, pp. 32-3), one of the most popular travel accounts about America from the early 18th century. Only a few years ago Henry Timberlake had included a war song of the Cherokees in his Memoirs (1765, pp. 55-59) and British readers could also find a death-song of the Eskimos in David Crantz' History of Greenland (1767, p. 239). The "Indian song" would soon become a popular genre. 

Therefore it was no wonder that Carver wanted to contribute to the growing body of relevant "authentic" texts. Three pieces in his book are of interest here. First there is an "extremely poetical and pleasing" oration performed for a dead chief (pp. 399-400), not a song at all but it was later turned into one:

Bourne has shown (p. 295) that this was not an original text but derived from a - possibly also fictitious - funeral oration in Lahontan's New Voyages (1703, II, pp. 51-2). It's only the question if Carver had witnessed something of this kind during his time with the Dakotas and then attempted to reconstruct it with the help of Lahontan's description or if it was simply plagiarized to fill up the pages of his book. In this case the latter seems more plausible. 

Then he offered a "plaintive melancholy song" of a woman bemoaning her dead child (pp. 404-6):

In this case the core of the scenery can be found in the Journals (Parker, p. 104): 
"[...] the mother of the child [...] would sing to the corps of her son telling over in a sort of singing tone how it had slam its enemies and taken prisoners [...] By these elegies they mean to signifie no more than what they think probable the child might have performed had it lived to mature years." 
For the book he expanded this part and added the words of the "song". But this was obviously his own work. He had learned a little bit of the language - "I was six months among them & had oppertunity to learn something of their dialict" ([sic!]; Parker, pp. 100/1) - but with his rudimentary knowledge he surely wouldn't have been able to understand and write down a complete text as it was sung by this woman. 

There is also a vocabulary of the Dakota language - the first one ever published - that Carver had collected himself. As an illustrative example he added both the "original" words and an English translation of a "hunting song" (p. 440): 

But again serious doubts are advisable: 
"Although this text clearly demonstrates Carver's lack of knowledge of Dakota grammar, it is valuable as an example of the type of 'pidgin' Dakota probably used by Carver and many early traders. Each of the three sentences is grammatically correct in English, with the best possible substitutions of Dakota words as Carver knew them [...]. It is doubtful that the Naudowessee would have understood more than a few disconnected phrases [...]" (DeMallie in Parker 1976, p. 212). 
All three texts were clearly not "authentic" recordings of original performances by native Americans. But at least in the latter two cases - the death-song for the child and the hunting-song - the basic ethnographic information seems to be correct. These "songs" may have been attempts at reconstructing something he had heard. But Carver's "fabricated" texts (see Hochbruck, pp. 75-6) were closer to the pseudo-Indian rhetoric created and promoted by European writers, the kind of style common for literary works like - for example - Warton's popular poem about the "Dying Indian" (1755, at the Internet Archive). 

Nonetheless these texts' "authenticity" was taken for granted and they were well received among scholars and poets who looked for some original "Indian" songs. The year 1790 saw the publication of a new edition of Purmann's Sitten und Meinungen der Wilden in Amerika. In the appendix to the fourth volume he presented and discussed Carver's book and also quoted all three pieces (pp. 368-9, 372, 379). 

Carver's "songs" also fit well into the popular enthusiasm for the poetry of the people: "Volkslieder" and "national songs". Herder in Germany didn't include them in his Volkslieder (1778/79) because the German edition of the Travels only appeared in 1780. But two decades later he quoted two of the three in the little treatise Land der Seelen, a discussion of the beliefs in life after death among several peoples (Zerstreute Blätter 6, 1797, pp. 135-42). As examples he used Arabian poems, texts from Ossian that were supposed to represent the Celts and from Carver both the death-song for the child and the oration of death for the deceased chief. 

A year later German poet Friedrich Schiller - like many Germans fascinated with the "Indians" - took the latter, also from the German edition of Carver's book, and turned it into a ballad that was published first in the Musen-Almanach für das Jahr 1798 (pp. 237-9): 

Poems about Indians by German writers were not uncommon. For example adaptations of Warton's "Dying Indian" had been published both by Christian Heinrich Schmid in his Anthologie der Deutschen (1772, pp. 330-1) and by Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart (first in the Deutsche Chronik 1, 1774, p. 83). Many more "Indian" poems would follow (see Augustin's anthology, 1981). But Schiller's "Nadowessische Todtenklage" (see Jantz 1959) was a particularly strange piece. Today it sounds like a parody but I assume it was a serious attempt at speaking with an "Indian" voice. Interestingly this ballad won a certain popularity. It was set to music by composer Hummel (in 12 Deutsche Lieder, 1799, pp. 6-7) and also translated into English several times, for example by Benjamin Beresford who included Hummel's song with an English text in one of his anthologies, the Collection of German Ballads and Songs (1800, pp. 22-3):

The "hunting song" also appeared in a little anthology of "exotic" poetry and songs compiled by linguist Johann Christoph Adelung. His Proben der Dichtung ungebildeter Völker can be found in a Becker's Erholungen, a literary periodical (1799, pp. 194-208, here No. 10, p. 206). Here he put together original songs and poetry - together with his own translations - from the Baltic, Siberia, Lapland as well as South and North America. They were taken mostly from travel books and ethnographies, some older like Scheffer's Lapponia and the rest more recent publications like Carver's Travels and Long's Voyages. In fact these were more or less all texts of this kind that were available at that time. Adelung versified Carver's text "to make it more look like a poem" (Feest, p. 56) and that way he adapted it even more to European literary conventions. 

One may assume that Adelung was already busy preparing his Mithridates oder allgemeine Sprachenkunde, a comparative survey of the world's languages. The volumes about America were only published posthumously. I can't say how much of it was his own work but we can see that the chapter discussing the language of the "Nadowessier oder Sioux-Nation" is still based mostly on Carver's vocabulary. Here this "hunting-song" was quoted again (3.3, 1816, pp. 256-65, here p. 265). 

Interestingly this particular piece - "the first purportedly 'Dakota' text ever published, and [...] perhaps also the most frequently reprinted and translated one" (Feest, p. 56) - reappeared later in other publications, for example in the USA in a periodical, The Portfolio (5, 1818, p. 328), where the original text and a translation were placed between an Italian song and a "Sonnet" from Goethe's Torquato Tasso. In Germany it was Bromme who quoted it again in his popular books about America (here 1839, p. 252). 

I can close here with Therese von Jacob - i. e. Talvj - a very knowledgeable scholar of international "Volkslieder" and ethno-poetry -, who in 1840 published her Versuch einer geschichtlichen Charakteristik der Volkslieder germanischer Nationen. She also included chapters about non-European songs and her anthology of American texts included her own adaptations of both the hunting-song and the mother's song for the dead child (here pp. 120-1). It is somewhat surprising that she still used these old texts - and once again turned then into Europeanized poems - but at least some of the other pieces in her little collection were of a later date and perhaps from more reliable sources. 

We can see that by that time Carver's "songs" were still regarded as authentic representations of the American Indians' culture. Of course they weren't but instead already adapted to the cultural frame of reference of the European readers. With each translation they were even more Europeanized. Nonetheless his texts had a semblance of "authenticity" because he had been there and he had some real knowledge of this culture. That made their reception different from the purely literary works like for example Warton's "Dying Indian". 

IV. Bibliography 

At first it is of course necessary to bring all the editions and translations of Carver's book into some order. Thankfully this work has already been done. A more or less complete bibliography was attempted first by John Thomas Lee in his two ground-breaking articles more than a century ago (1909 & 1913) and then by Parker in his edition of Carver's journals (1976, pp. 222-31). All the English and American editions until the year 1800 are also listed in the English Short Title Catalogue (ESTC). 

Where then can we find the digital copies of these books? That is not always easy because they are scattered over different repositories. The search strategy usually depends on what I am looking for. In this case I have started with the Internet Archive. Their own scans - mostly of books from North American libraries - are nearly always of excellent quality. I also know that there are some collections that include a considerable number of travel books from the 18th and 19th century. In fact this turned out to be very successful

What is available there first needed to be sorted and then served as a backbone of the bibliography. This was supplemented with what can be found - with the help of search engines like the KVK - on sites like Google Books and in other libraries' repositories. By the way, nearly all early English and American editions published until 1800 are also available at Eighteenth Century Collections Online (ECCO) and some of the American editions in Early American Imprints (Newsbank/Readex). But these are closed databases and also the quality isn't the best. Ten years ago they would have been the only digital copies available. Today in most cases better scans are available in open repositories. 

ESTC had for a long time only links to copies in closed collections like ECCO and EAI. Recently they started to add links to scans at sites like Hathi Trust, Internet Archive and even sometimes Google Books. At the moment this is far from being complete. Nonetheless it is helpful and I hope this feature will be expanded in future. 

It is also necessary to identify a digital copy's provenance. The same copy may be available in different repositories. A considerable number of books scanned by Google can be found at the Internet Archive, at Hathi Trust and often on the site of the contributing library. Scans produced by the Internet Archive were also posted at Hathi Trust. This means that the same copy is available different repositories. Occasionally this can be a little bit confusing and it is advisable to sort it out. 

At first I will look at the five early English editions published between 1778 and 1781:
Three copies of the first edition - from three different libraries - are available at the Internet Archive. They are of good quality and also complete. As far as I can see all maps and plates have been scanned correctly and are included. There is also one copy at Google Books. But - as expected - it is not complete and should be avoided: the maps have been mutilated by the scanner. As is widely known this is a general problem with Google's scans that limits their usefulness. 

Of the four following editions one is missing, the one published in London in 1780. But this one seems to be very rare and according to ESTC there is only one extant copy in a library. But good scans of other three are easily available at the Internet Archive. The most important supplier in this respect is the John Carter Brown Library (JCBL). They offer a great collection of early literature about the Americas including many different editions of Carver's Travels. I have also listed Google Books' scan of the Dublin edition but once again the map is missing

Periodicals are also an important source. There was a considerable number of reviews as swell as reprints of parts of the Travels. Magazines from this era can easily found at Google Books. They have digitized nearly all the important publications like for example the Gentleman's Magazine, the Monthly Review, the London Review and the Lady's Magazine. Newspapers from that time are of also indispensable. The most important resource is the 17th-18th Century Burney Collection (Gale) that is of course still not freely available. 

The American editions published since 1784 are based on the last London edition. But neither the index nor Mr. Lettsom's biography were included. For some reason the maps and the plates were also left out. In 1798 the book returned to Britain. Four editions were published in Scotland until 1808: 
We can see that only one is missing. The rest has been scanned at least once and all except one are available in open repositories. Again the JCBL offers excellent digital copies of five of them. For the others we can also use Google Books' scans. Here they couldn't do much wrong because there were no maps or other fold-outs to mutilate. Some are also available at the Internet Archive as part of the CIHM Monograph Collection. This is a great and very valuable collection of Canadiana that were scanned from microfiches. The resulting digital copies don't always look that perfect but if there is nothing else they can be used to fill the gaps. 

As mentioned above parts of Carver's book were also reprinted in popular periodicals, for example in newspapers like The Columbian Herald (1784), The New Haven Gazette (1784/5), The Lichfield Monitor (1785/6) and others. These publications have all been digitized. They can be found easily in a America's Historical Newspaper (Newsbank/Readex), but of course only by those who have institutional access. 

One more later edition of the Travels was published in 1838, this time with all the maps and illustrations (see the review in: The New York Review 4, 1839, pp. 233-4). Two fine copies are available at the Internet Archive
  • Jonathan Carter, Travels in Wisconsin. From the Third London Edition, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1838
    at the Internet Archive [= Wellesley CL]
    at the Internet Archive [= LOC] 
We can see that the British and American editions of Carver's Travels are well represented in the digital book world. Nearly all of them are freely available. There is no need to use closed databases like ECCO or Early American Imprints. Most of the scans are also in good quality and perfectly usable. But it is also clear to see that in this case one particular library - the JCBL that is specialized in this genre - is responsible for most of the good digital copies of Carver's book produced until now. Without their digitization efforts much less would be available. 

The publication history of this book in Britain and America came to an end in 1838 and it took a very long time until it was made available again. In the 1950s a facsimilé of the third edition was published (Minneapolis 1956, at Hathi Trust [= GB]). But it was Parker's groundbreaking edition of Carver's journals (1976, at the Internet Archive) that attracted new attention for his work. Later the Travels were published anew in a modern edition with an excellent introduction and an abbreviated text (Gelb 1993). But today it is much easier to get access to the digital copies of nearly all original editions of this work. They can serve as the starting-point for further research. 

The foreign editions of Carver's Travels are also mostly available online. I can start here with Germany where the first translation was published already two years after the first English edition. Google Books offers two copies. But both of them are incomplete because - as expected - the map is missing. Thankfully the JCBL helps out once again. The excellent scan of their copy can be found at the Internet Archive
Responsible for this publication was Christian Daniel Ebeling who wrote a short preface. The translator wasn't named but most likely it may have been his brother Johann Philipp (see Parker, p. 224). This book also served as the first volume of the his series Neue Sammlung von Reisebeschreibungen (Bohn, Hamburg, 1780-1790). All the other volumes have been scanned by Google (available at Oxford). Ebeling (1741-1817, see Wikipedia; wikisource; Stewart 1976), a teacher, scholar, librarian, translator and editor, was at that time amongst those who brought the world to the German readers. Later he wrote a geography and history of North America, the Erdbeschreibung und Geschichte von Amerika (7 Vols., 1793-1816, at BSB). 

For some reason this edition was never reprinted and vanished from the book market. But soon Campe's version of Carver's Travels became available. The publication history of his first collection of travel accounts for juvenile readers can be a little bit confusing. It was first published by Campe's own Schulbuchhandlung in Braunschweig between 1785 and 1793 but soon reprints followed and other publishers also took over. 

I have used a copy of the fourth volume that I found at the Internet Archive. The quality is fine but the contributing library apparently didn't have the complete series. Therefore I have listed some others where all volumes of the Sammlung are available as well as one later edition from the 1790s: 
More editions would follow. There was one published in Vienna as Sammlung interessanter Reisebeschreibungen für die Jugend in 1807/8. Nearly all volumes of the series have been digitized by Google for the Austrian National Library but not yet the one with Carver's Reisen (see ÖNB). Publisher Macklot in Stuttgart brought out a new edition in 13 volumes, now with the title Sammlung merkwürdiger Reisebeschreibungen für die Jugend. The part with Carver's Reisen can be found, bound together with several other parts of this series, in a digitized volume available at the Internet Archive [= Duke-JantzColl]. 

Campe also put together a complete collection of all his writings for juvenile reader. This Gesamtausgabe first appeared between 1806 and 1822 in 39 volumes and was then regularly reprinted at least six times until the 1840s. The first Sammlung can be found in volumes 17-28 and Carver was of course included, too. The 4th edition - published between 1830 and 1832 - may serve as an example. Nearly all volumes are available at the Internet Archive
  • J. Carvers Reisen durch das Innere von Nordamerika, in: Joachim Heinrich Campe, Erste Sammlung merkwürdiger Reisebeschreibungen. 4. Theil, 7. verb. Aufl. (= Sämmtliche Kinder- und Jugendschriften. Neue Gesamtausgabe der letzten Hand 20), Schulbuchhandlung, Braunschweig, 1831, at the Internet Archive [= UofToronto] 
The first French translation appeared with a map but just like in Germany the plates weren't included. There are several fine scans available at the Internet Archive. Several more copies can be found at Google Books. I have only listed two of them: 
  • Jonathan Carver, Voyage Dans Les Parties Intérieures de L'Amérique Septentrionale, Pendant les années 1766, 1767 & 1768. Ouvrage traduit sur la troisieme édition Angloise, par M. de C.... avec de remarques & quelques additions du traducteur, Pissot, Paris, 1784, 
    at the Internet Archive [= JCBL]
    at the Internet Archive [= McGill]
    at the Internet Archive [= McGill]
    at Google Books [= ÖNB
  • -, [s. n.], Yverdon, 1784
    at the Internet Archive [= JCBL]
    at Google Books [= UofLausanne] 
Soon afterwards a new translation was published, not of the original book but of Campe's abbreviated German edition. 
  • Choix des Détails le Plus Intéressans que Contiennent les Voyages de Jean Carver dans l'Intérieur de l'Amerique Septentrionale, in: Johann Heinrich Campe, Recueil de Voyages Intéressans pour l'Instruction et l'Amusement de la Jeunesse. Traduit de l'Allemand, T. 4, Streng, Frankfurt/M., 1789, pp. 43-408,
    at Google Books [= UofLausanne] 
After the turn of the century a series with the title Bibliothèque Géographique et Instructive des Jeunes Gens ou recueil de voyages intéressants began to appear. It was based on Campe's first Sammlung but other popular travel accounts like Chardin's Voyage en Perse were also included. Between 1802 and 1807 nearly 70 volumes were published. Carver's Travels can be found in volumes 5 and 6: 
  • Jonathan Carver, Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique Septentrionale, pendantles années 1766, 1767 & 1768. Rédigé pour l'instruction et l'amusement de la jeunesse, par Campe. Traduit de l'Allemand avec des notes [...], Dufour, Paris & Amsterdam, 1802, 2 Vols. [not yet digitized] 
This series must have been quite popular and was republished several times until 1816 (see Parker, p. 230). But that wasn't the last time the young readers in France heard of Mr. Carver. After a long hiatus the French translation of Campe's edition appeared again in 1845 as part of the Bibliothèque des Écoles Chrétiennes. The editor added a good and informative introduction. This book was then reprinted eight times until the 1870s (see Parker, p. 231). I found digital copies of two early editions at Google Books. The quality of the scan leaves leaves something to be desired but they are still usable: 
  • Aventures de Carver Chez les Sauvages de l'Amérique Septentrionale, Mame et Co., Tours, 1845 , at Google Books [= NYPL]
    -, 3rd ed., 1849, at Google Books [= Oxford
All in all 15 editions of Carver's Travels were published in France between 1784 and 1870. It was available on the book market for nearly 90 years, much longer than in the USA. In fact "the book's popularity in Europe"was surely not only "rather momentary" (Djahazi, p. 31), at least in Germany and France. 

There was also a Dutch translation based on the third English edition that appeared in the 1790s in two volumes. A map and several plates were included. I found three copies. The one at Google Books has of course the usual defects: 
  • Jonathan Carver, Reize Door De Binnenlanden Van Noord-Amerika. Naar den deerden Druk uit het Engelsch veertaald door J. D. Pasteur. Meet Plaaten, Honkoop, Leyden, 1796, 2 Vols.,
    at the Internet Archive [= JCBL]
    at KBN/UB Leiden
    at Google Books [= UGent] 
But soon Campe's version followed. His works were also very popular in the Netherlands and many of them were translated (see de Jong 1832, p. 101). Parts of the Sammlung interessanter Reisebeschreibungen appeared as Reisbeschrijvingen voor de Jeugd in five volumes since 1786 in Zwolle and Amsterdam (Catalog Utrecht University). The one with Carver's Travels came out in 1804 (see AVL 1804, p. 658-60 ). The following year a Swedish edition was published, translated not from Campe's original German but from the French: Jonathan Carvers Resa i Norra Amerika. It was part of the Geografiskt bibliotek för ungdom, eller Samling af intressanta resebeskrifningar till den uppväxande ungdomens nytta och nöje (see Parker, p. 230; see libris). And more than 75 years later, in 1881, even a Greece translation appeared (see Parker, p. 231). But as far as I know none of these publications have been digitized. 

We can see that the most important European editions are also available online. As usual Google's scans need to checked for quality and completeness. But excellent copies of the first German, French and Dutch translations can be found at the Internet Archive, once again thanks to the JCBL. There is also a representative sample of the different editions of Campe's abbreviated version and its French translation. What is missing from the digital book world at the moment are some of the more obscure publications. But I have no doubt that they may be available sometime in the future. All in all the result is mostly satisfying. Mr. Carver's Travels are nowadays easier to find and more accessible than at the time of their original publication. 

  • Percy Adams, Travels and Travel Liars, 1660-1800, Berkeley & Los Angeles, 1962, at the Internet Archive [B] 
  • Johann Christoph Adelung, Proben der Dichtung ungebildeter Völker. Erstes Dutzend, in: Erholungen. Herausgegenen von W. G. Becker. 1. Bändchen, Koch & Weigel, 1799, Leipzig, 1799 pp. 194-208, at Google Books [= Princeton]; at UB Göttingen 
  • Johann Christoph Adelung, Mithridates oder allgemeine Sprachenkunde mit dem Vater Unser als Sprachprobe in beynahe fünfhundert Sprachen und Mundarten, Voss, Berlin, 1806-1817, 4 Vols., at the Internet Archive (Vols. 1/3; Vols. 2/4
  • AHN = America's Historical Newspapers (Newsbank/Readex, via 
  • Merv O. Ahrens, The Impact of Jonathan Carver's Journal and Map, in: Journal of the American Revolution, March 23, 2015, at allthingsliberty 
  • Algemene Vaderlandsche Letter-Oefeningen voor 1804, van der Kroe etc, Amsterdam, 1804, at Google Books 
  • C. V. Alvord, Jonathan Carver Vindicated, in: The Magazine of History with Notes and Queries 16, 1913, pp. 196-9, at the Internet Archive 
  • Richard B. Apgar, Taming Travel and Disciplining Reason. Enlightment and Pedagogy in the Work of Joachim Heinrich Campe, Phil. Diss., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2008, at Carolina Digital Repository 
  • Siegfried Augustin (ed.), Nadowessiers Totenlied. Der Indianer im Gedicht, München, 1982 
  • BBCN = 17th-18th Century Burney Collection Newspapers (Gale) 
  • Benjamin Smith Barton, Observations on Some Parts of Natural History. To Which is Prefixed an Account of Several Remarkable Vestiges of an Ancient Date, Which Have Been Discovered in Different Parts of North America. Part I, Printed for the Author, London, 1787 [ESTC T11076], at the Internet Archive 
  • Theodore Blegen, Minnesota. A History of a State, Minneapolis & London, 1963 
  • David Bosse, The Maps of Robert Rogers and Jonathan Carver, in: The American Magazine and Historical Chronicle 1, 1985, pp. 45-61, at Hathi Trust 
  • E. G. Bourne, The Travels of Jonathan Carver, in: AHR 11, 1906, pp. 287-302, at the Internet Archive 
  • Traugott Bromme, Nordamerika's Bewohner, Schönheiten und Naturschätze im Allgemeinen und die brittischen Besitzungen insbesondere. Mit zwei Stahlstichen und achtundvierzig Kupfern, Scheible, Stuttgart, 1839, at the Internert Archive [= YorkUL] 
  • William Browning, The Early History of Jonathan Carver, in: Wisconsin Magazine of History 3, 1920, pp. 291-306, at the Internet Archive 
  • Gabriele Brune-Heiderich, Die Begegnung Europas mit der überseeischen Welt. Völkerkundliche Aspekte im jugendliterarischen Werk Joachim Heinrich Campes, Frankfurt/M., 1989 
  • Lawrence J. Burpee, The Search for the Western Sea. The Story of the Exploration of North Western America, Muisson, Toronto, 1908, at the Internet Archive 
  • David Crantz, The History of Greenland: Containing a Description of the Country, and Its Inhabitants: and Particularly, a Relation of the Mission, carried on for above these Thirty Years by the Unitas Fratrum, at New Herrnhuth and Lichtenfels, in that Country, Printed for the Brethren's Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel among the Heathen, London, 1767 [ESTC T144569], available at the Internet Archive 
  • Ramin Djahazi, The Message Becomes the Messenger: Jonathan Carver's Travels between Imposture and Nationalist Self-Fashioning, in: Caroline Rosenthal & Stefanie Schäfer (eds.), Fake Identity? The Imposter Narrative in North American Culture, Frankfurt & New York, 2014, pp. 27-44 
  • EAI = Early American Imprints Series I & II (Newsbank/Readex, via 
  • ECCO = Eighteenth Century Collections Online (Gale, via
  • Edward Everett, The Life of George Washington, Sheldon & Co., New York, 1860, at the Internet Archive 
  • Hans-Heino Ewers, Joachim Heinrich Campe als Kinderliterat und als Jugendschriftsteller, in: ders., Erfahrung schrieb's und reicht's der Jugend. Geschichte der deutschen Kinder- und Jugendliteratur vom 18. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert. Gesammelte Beiträge aus drei Jahrzehnten, Frankfurt/M., 2010, pp. 53-78 
  • William Falconer, Remarks on the Influence of Climate, Situation, Nature of Country, Population, Nature of Food, and Way of Life on the Disposition and Temper, Manners and Behaviour, Intellects, Laws and Customs, Form of Government, and Religion, of Mankind, Dilly, London, 1781 [ESTC T60417], at the Internet Archive [= RCP] 
  • Christian Feest, Early German Ethnopoetics, or Little Redskin Riding Hood, in: European Review of Native American Studies 4, 1990, pp. 54-7 (see
  • Russel W. Fridey, The Writings of Jonathan Carver, in: Minnesota History Magazine 34.4, 1954, pp. 154-9, at Minnesota Historical Society 
  • Tim Fulford, Romantic Indians. Native Americans, British Literature, and Transatlantic Culture, 1756-1830, Cambridge, 1996 
  • Norman Gelb (ed.), Jonathan Carver's Travels Through America 1766 - 1786. An Eighteenth-Century Explorer's Account of Uncharted America, New York, 1993 
  • Paul Goetsch, Linguistic Colonialism and Primitivism. The Discovery of Native Languages and Oral Traditions in Eighteenth-Century Travel Books and Novels, in: Anglia. Zeitschrift für Englische Philologie 106, 1988, pp. 338-359 
  • Heidi Gould, Carver, Jonathan (1710–1780), at MNopedia (Minnesota Historical Society), 2013 
  • A. W. Greely, Explorers and Travellers, Scribner, New York, 1894, at the Internet Archive [= NYPL]
  • Robert Greenhow, The History of Oregon and California, and the Other Territories on the North-West Coast of North America; Accompanied by a Geographical View and Map of those Countries, and a Number of Documents as Proofs and Illustrations of the History. 2nd Edition, Little & Brown, Boston, 1845, at the Internet Archive [= Uof Toronto] 
  • John Hawkesworth, An Account of the Voyages Undertaken by the Order of His Present Majesty for Making Discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere, and successively performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret, and Captain Cook, In the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavour. Drawn up From the Journals which were kept by the several Commanders And from the Papers of Joseph Banks, In Three Volumes, Strahan and Cadell, London, 1773, at the Internet Archive 
  • John Heckewelder, Account of the History, Manners, and Customs of the Indian Nations who once inhabited Pennsylvania and the Neighboring States, 1819 & Correspondence between Mr. Heckewelder and Mr. Duponceau, on the Language of the American Indians, in: Transactions of the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society I, Small, Philadelphia, 1819, pp. 1-350 & 351-450, at the Internet Archive 
  • Alexander Henry, Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories Between the Years 1760 and 1776. New Edition, Edited with Notes, Illustrative and Biographical, Little, Brown & Cio., Boston, 1901, at the Internet Archive [= LoC] 
  • Johann Gottfried Herder, II. Das Land der Seelen. Ein Fragment, in: Zerstreute Blätter 6, Gotha 1797, pp. 95-142, at BSB [= Google Books], also at the Internet Archive 
  • Wolfgang Hochbruck, 'I Have Spoken'. Die Darstellung und ideologische Funktion indianischer Mündlichkeit in der nordamerikanischen Literatur, Tübingen, 1991 
  • Harold Jantz, Schiller's Indian Threnody, in: John R. Frey, Schiller 1759 - 1959. Commemorative American Studies, Urbana, 1959, pp. 58-75 
  • Myra Jehlen, The Literature of Colonization, in: The Cambridge History of American Literature. General Editor, Sacvan Bercovitch. Volume 1: 1590-1820, Cambridge & New York, 1994, pp. 11-168
  • Albert Ernest Jenks, The Wild Rice Gatherers of the Upper Lakes. A Study in Primitive Economy, Government Printing Office, Washington, 1901, at the Internet Archive [= LoC] 
  • [J. de Jong], Alphabetische Naamlijst van Boekken, welke sedert het jaar 1790 tot en met het jaar 1831, in Noord-Nederland sijn uitgekomen, van Cleef, 's Gravenhage & Amsterdam, 1832, at Google Books
  • William H. Keating, Narrative of an Expedition to the Source of St. Peter's River, Lake Winnepeek, Lake of Woods, &c. Performed in the Year 1823 [...] Under the Command of Stephen H. Long. Composed from the Notes of Major Long, Messrs. Say, Keating, & Calhoun, 2 Vols., Whittaker, London, 1825, at the Internet Archive 
  • Louis Armand Lahontan, New Voyages to North-America. In Two Volumes, Bonwicke et al., London, 1703 [ESTC T43043], at the Internet Archive 
  • John Thomas Lee, A Bibliography of Carter's Travels, in: Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 1909, Published by the Society, Madison, 1910, pp. 143-183, at the Internet Archive 
  • John Thomas Lee, Captain Jonathan Carver: Additional Data, in: Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 1912, Published by the Society, Madison, 1913, pp. 87-123, at the Internet Archive
    -, Published for the Society, Madison, 1913 (= Separate No. 150), at the Internet Archive 
  • John Long, Voyages and Travels of an Indian Interpreter and Trader, Describing the Manners and Customs of the North American Indians; With an Account of the Posts Situated on the River Saint Laurence, Lake Ontario, &c. To Which is Added, a Vocabulary of the Chippeway Language. Names of Furs and Skins, in English and French. A List of Words in the Iroquois, Mohegan, Shawanee, and Esquimaux Tongues, And a Table Shewing the Analogy between the Algonkin and Chippeway Languages, Printed for the Author, London, 1791 [ESTC T122592], at the Internet Archive 
  • Hartmut Lutz, 'Indianer' und 'Native Americans'. Zur sozial- und literaturhistorischen Vermittlung eines Stereotyps. Hildesheim, Zürich & New York, 1985 
  • Hartmut Lutz, 'German Indianthusiasm'. A Socially Constructed German National(ist) Myth, 2002, in: Colin G. Calloway, Gerd Gemünden & Susanne Zantop (eds.), Germans and Indians. Fantasies, Encounters, Projections, Lincoln & London, 2002, pp. 167-84 
  • Patricia M. Medeiros, Three Travelers, in: Everett Emerson (ed.), American Literature 1764-1789. The Revolutionary Years, Madison, 1977, pp. 195-201 
  • Edward D. Neill, Dakotah Land and Dakotah Life, with the History of the Fur Traders of the Extreme Northwest during the Feench ans British Dominions, Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1859, at the Internet Archive [= LoC] 
  • John Parker, The Journals of Jonathan Carver and Related Documents 1766-1770, St. Paul, 1976, at the Internet Archive [B] 
  • John Parker, New Light on Jonathan Carver, in: The American Magazine and Historical Chronicle 2.1. 1986, pp. 4-17, at Hathi Trust 
  • Johann Georg Purmann, Sitten und Meinungen der Wilden in Amerika. Letzte verbesserte Auflage, Schräubl, Wien, 1790, 4 Vols. at the Internet Archive [= Getty] 
  • Milo M. Quaife, Critical Evaluation of the Sources for Western History, in: The Mississippi Valley Historical Review 1, 1914, pp. 167-84, at the Internet Archive [= JStor] 
  • Kenneth Roberts, Northwest Passage, Collins, London, 1938 
  • Henry Savage Jr., Discovering America 1700-1875, New York, 1979 
  • Robert Woods Sayre, Modernity and Its Other. The Encounter with North American Indians in the Eighteenth Century, Lincoln & London, 2017 
  • Carl Nicolai Starcke, Die primitive Familie in ihrer Entstehung und Entwicklung, Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1888, at the Internet Archive [= UofToronto] 
  • Gordon M. Stewart, Christoph Daniel Ebeling: America's Friend in Eighteenth Century Germany, in: Monatshefte 68.2, 1976, pp. 151-61 (jstor
  • Talvj [Therese von Jacob], Versuch einer geschichtlichen Charakteristik der Volkslieder germanischer Nationen mit einer Uebersicht der Lieder aussereuropäischer Völkerschaften, Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1840, at BSB [= GB] 
  • Reuben Gold Thwaites, Wisconsin. The Americanization of a French Settlement, Houghton Miflin, Boston & New York, 1908, at the Internet Archive 
  • Henry Timberlake, The Memoirs of Lieut. Henry Timberlake, Printed for the Author, London, 1765 [ESTC T138032], at the Internet Archive 
  • Daniel E. Williams, Until They Are Contaminated by Their More Refined Neighbors: The Images of the Native Americans in Carver's 'Travels Through The Interior' and its Influence on the Euro-American Imagination, in: Christiaan F. Feest (ed.), Indians in Europe. An Interdisciplinary Collection of Essays, Lincoln & London, 1989, pp. 195-214
  • David Scofield Wilson, In the Presence of Nature, Amherst, 1978

Friday, November 17, 2017

"The Blue Bell of Scotland": Popular song, National Air & "Volkslied" - 3. The German Versions (1839-1852)

3. The German Versions (1839-1852) 


"The Blue Bell of Scotland" also became very popular in Germany. But it took some time, in fact nearly four decades, until the first adaptation was introduced. But then several versions with different German texts were published and at the end of the century the song was a standard for choirs and was even sung in schools. 

Of course there was, thanks to Ossian and Percy's Reliques, a great interest for Scottish - but not yet Irish - songs in Germany since the 1770s. Herder and others translated a considerable number of texts. But it seems that at first there was much less interest in the tunes. Only very few were made available. The first anthology with music, Haydn's Alt-Schottische Balladen und Lieder (1803/4, at the Internet Archive), wasn't particularly successful. Even Beethoven's Schottische Lieder (op. 108, 1822, at Beethoven-Haus) were at first received with some skepticism (see Waltz). 

But in 1826 "Robin Adair", introduced via France with Boieldieu's La Dame Blanche, was a great hit (see my text at JustAnotherTune). It became one of the most popular Volkslieder in Germany during the 19th century and opened the door for more British songs, especially Scottish and Irish national airs. Meanwhile in Heidelberg Professor Thibaut (see here in my blog), jurist and music theorist, was busy translating and arranging foreign songs. He also performed them regularly with his choir. Thibaut owned copies of some of Thomson's collections and he made good use of them. None of his works were published at that time but the manuscript of "Alte Volksgesänge" (see RISM 453009283) has survived. 

In the '30s Burns was discovered in Germany, more than three decades after his death. Several books of translations appeared even though the original tunes remained rare. German composers preferred to write their own melodies. Thomas Moore became even more popular and many of his songs from the Irish Melodies and the Popular National Airs were made available. From then on Scottish, Irish and English songs always made up a not insignificant part of the German singing repertoire. 

A key role was played by Friedrich Silcher (1789-1860), director of music at the University of Tübingen. He had already made himself a name as editor and arranger of German Volkslieder. Between 1835 and 1841 he first published the four volumes of his Ausländische Volksmelodien, an anthology of international national airs that was mostly derived from Moore's collections (at the Internet Archive; see here in my blog). Here he introduced German versions of for example "The Last Rose of Summer", "Here comes the Bard", "Home, Sweet Home"and "My Heart's in the Highlands" These songs would become popular Volkslieder nearly everybody was familiar with. 


"The Blue Bell of Scotland" was first published in Germany circa 1810 in a rather obscure collection, guitar player Carl Kreye's VI Englische National-Lieder (No. 3, p. 5). But this was only Mrs. Jordan's original version and he didn't include a translation. Apparently nothing did come of this publication and it would take nearly two decades until the song appeared again in print. Professor Thibaut in Heidelberg must have known at least Mrs. Grant's version from Thomson's anthology. But it seems he didn't use it. At least the song can not be found in his manuscript. 

Who knew it was Franz Kugler (1808-1858; see Wikipedia), a young poet and songwriter who later would become a famous art historian. In 1829 he had spent some time in Heidelberg and had also sung in Thibaut's choir. A year later his Skizzenbuch appeared. This was a very tasteful collection of songs and poetry and here we can find a "Harfenlied" (p. 80) written to the tune of "O where, and o where is your Highland Laddie gone". This poem is in no way related to the original text and the melody was not included. One may assume that Kugler expected his readers to be familiar with it. Some years later instrumental versions of "The Blue Bell of Scotland" by piano players Auguste de Sayve (see Hofmeister, Nov/Dec 1832, p. 89) and Henri Herz (see Hofmeister, Juni 1836, p. 52-3; at IMSLP) were published. 

It seems that the tune was already well known in Germany by that time. But the first successful German adaptation of the song only appeared in 1839: in the third volume of Silcher's Ausländische Volksmelodien (No. 8, p. 11): 

Hinaus, ach hinaus zog des Hochlands kühner Sohn;
Er zog in den Streit für seines Königs Thron.
Er geht, es eilt ihm nach der Liebsten Klageton,
'Und er sucht ihn ihr Blick, nie kehrt er mehr zurück.

Ach dort, wo kein Berg die müde Sonne deckt,
Von mir liegt er fern auf blut'gen Sand gestreckt;
Wo ihn nicht mehr mein Ruf zu frühem Jagen weckt,
Ach, das Schwert, das ihn traf, senkt mich in Todesschlaf. 
This volume offered a good selection of international Volkslieder. There are four tunes - Irish, Indian, Venetian and Neaplitan - from Moore's collections as well as French and Scandinavian songs. Most interesting is a real Scottish tune, the one of "The Bush Aboon Traquair" which is here combined with a poem by Friedrich Rückert (No. 6, pp. 8-9). "Hinaus, ach hinaus" fits in well here. At that time every anthology needed at least one patriotic war song. 

This text's author is not known. Silcher was not always forthcoming about his sources. Perhaps he had found it in a literary magazine and then dispossessed the original writer. This was also the case with another song in this collection, the "Minstrel Boy" in the fourth volume. But this free adaptation isn't that bad. In fact it sounds quite effective when sung to the tune. There are only two verses but they are more dramatic than the original text. Here the brave warrior doesn't return home and at the end of the second verse the girl also dies. 

We can see that he used the simplified version of the tune. Perhaps he had a sheet music edition with this variant at hand. For this collection Silcher had arranged the song for one voice accompanied by piano or guitar. Later he also wrote an arrangement for male choirs that was first published in 1860 in the 12th volume of his XII Volkslieder für Mannerstimmen (see Bopp, p. 215; also in Volkslieder, 1902, No. 135, pp. 243-4).


Only three years later the song appeared again, this time with both the original English text and a new German translation: 
  • Scotch National Song: The Blue Bells of Scotland. Schottisches Nationallied: Die Blauen Glöckchen von Schottland (Choice of the Most Favorite English, Scottish and Irish Romances and Airs No. 10), Schlesinger, Berlin, n. d. [1842] (see Hofmeister, März 1842, p. 42; AMZ 44, 1842, col. 222), at the Internet Archive 
"Wohin zog, o, zog dein Hochlandsbursch davon?"
"In den Kampf mit Frankreichs Sohn für König George auf seinen Thron.
Und, o, wünscht mein Herz, wär er doch zu Hause schon!"

"O wo ist, o wo ist deines Hochlandsburschen Haus?"
"Sein Haus ist in lieb' Schottland in dem Blumenglöcklein Strauss.
Und o aus dem Herzen kommt er mir nie heraus."

"In welch ein Kleid denn gekleidet dein Hochlandbursche geht?"
"Seine Mütze, die ist von Tartan grün, und sein Brustlatz, der ist von Plaid,
Und immer mein Herz nach dem Hochlandburschen steht."

"Ach denk' nur, ach denk' nur, wenn dein Hochlandbursche fiel?"
"Ich setzt' mich hin und weinte bei der Trauerpfeife Spiel
Vor Schmerz bräch' mein Herz, wenn er fiel, wenn er fiel." 
The German version was by Philipp Kaufmann (1802-1846; see Goedeke, Grundriss, p. 1041) who had made himself a name as a translator of Shakespeare and also of Burns' songs (see Gedichte von Robert Burns, 1839, at Google Books). His text is much closer to the original but otherwise not very convincing. It sounds clumsy and stiff and not particularly well singable. 

The publisher also included accompanying arrangements for guitar and piano by Eduard Salleneuve respectively Sigmund Jähns, both respected musicians. Interestingly the original variant of the tune was used here, not the simplified one á la Silcher. In fact the song was newly imported again, in this case - believe it or not - by the King of Prussia. At least that's what is claimed on the cover of the sheet music: 
"played before his Majesty Frederik William of Prussia on the Duke of Wellingten's presenting new colours to the 72 regiment of Scotch Highlanders of Windsor Castle the 26 January 1842."

"gespielt vor Sr. Maj. dem Könige Friedrich Wilhelm IV zu Schloss Windsor am 26. Januar 1842 bei Übergabe der neuen Fahne an das 72te Regiment der Schottischen Hochländer und so beifällig aufgenommen, dass S. M. der König eine Abschrift nach Deutschland mitnahm." 
In January 1842 the King had traveled to London to attend the christening of the new-born Prince of Wales. There he also took part in a parade by a Scottish regiment that received new colours (see Natzmer, p. 38 & p. 48; Gentleman's Magazine 17 (N.S.), 1842, p. 317). It is interesting to see that this song was performed at such an official occasion. Apparently Mrs. Jordan's old popular dittie was at that time really regarded in England as an authentic Scottish air. 

It may also sound unusual that the King of Prussia himself - or maybe someone from his entourage - brought the song to Germany and then passed it on to a music publishing house. But there is no reason to disbelieve this story. The publisher surely wouldn't have dared to claim this on the sheet music if it wasn't true. In a catalog published in 1846 (p. 74) he could still boast about his royal informant: "Von S. Maj. dem König Friedrich Wilhelm IV. aus England mitgebracht". 

Some years later this version was revived by August Neithardt (1793-1861, see Wikipedia), at that time director and conductor of the Königliche Domchor in Berlin. In fact the song became part of the repertoire of this famous choir. In 1850 they toured in England and it was among the pieces performed there. Neithardt's arrangement was even published as sheet music in London by Novello (see Musical Times 4, 1850, p. 107).

 Only the following year this version appeared in print in Germany together with three other popular British standards: 
  • August Neithardt, 4 Volkslieder für Vokalquartett, op. 141. (Heimath, süsser Ort. Des Sommers letzte Rose. Blaue Glöcklein von Schottland. Rule Britania), Schlesinger, Berlin, 1851 (see Hofmeister, Juli 1851, p. 142); at UDK Berlin 
Of course the Domchor also performed the song at concerts in German, for example in one on March 1, 1852 (NBM 6, 1852, p. 72). 


At around that time a third German version of "The Blue Bell of Scotland" was published: 
  • Johannes Dürrner, 6 Schottische Nationalgesänge mit deutschem und englischem Texte, für 4 Männerstimmen (Solo u. Chor). Part. u. Stimmen (Die Blumen vom Walde, Das Mädchen von Gowrie, John Anderson, The blue Bells of Scotland, Schotten, deren edles Blut, Schwarz ist die Nacht). Gewidmet den deutschen Liedertafeln, Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig, 1852 (see Hofmeister, Oktober 1852, p. 187; NZM 37, No. 10, 3.9.1852, p. 104)
    - 4 songs reprinted in: Vivat Paulus. Liederbuch des Universitäts-Sängervereins zu St. Pauli, Leipzig, 1863, pp. 14-24, here No. 6d, pp. 22-4 
Auf deinen Höh'n, du mein liebes Vaterland,
da blüht ja so schön die Blum' am Waldesrand!
Die Blume blüht so blau, so blau im Sonnenschein:
Und liebliches Grün schließt rings die Blumen ein.
Die Glockenblumen blühn so hell im Sonnenschein,
Und liebliches Grün schliesst rings die Blumen ein!

O Heimathland bist du mir doch so hold und lieb.
In weitester Fern mein Herz bei Dir stets blieb.
Wohl ist die Welt so schön, so weit mein fuß mich trug,
Doch du warst's allein, für das mein Herze schlug.
Wohl ist die Welt so schön, so weit mein fuß mich trug,
Doch du warst's allein, für das mein Herze schlug.

Wo rings im Wald die rothen Disteln blühn,
Und Rosmarin und Raute sie umblühn,
Da lebt mein Volk so treu, mein Volk so treu und kühn,
Und preiset das Land, wo blau die Blumen blühn.
Da lebt mein Volk so treu, mein Volk so treu und kühn,
Und preiset das Land, wo blau die Blumen blühn. 
Johannes Dürrner (1810-1859, see BMLO; see Eichner), composer, conductor, arranger and teacher, came from the town of Ansbach and studied in Leipzig with Mendelssohn and others. Among his first works were settings of some of Burns' songs (see Eicher, pp. 175-7). In 1844 he moved to Edinburgh and worked there for the rest of his life as music teacher. His subsequent works, mostly songs, were published both in Germany and in Britain (see f. ex. Copac). 

This was the very rare case of a musician from Germany who lived in Scotland and produced a collection of Scottish songs for the German market. He of course had there easy access to all anthologies of national airs published in Britain. This was very different from editors and translators in Germany who often had difficulties to find those publications. Very few were available there. In Edinburgh Dürrner was also in contact with G. F. Graham and other local experts. His aim was to offer the German choirs arrangements that allowed them to perform these songs in an "authentic" way (see Eichner, p. 186-7). 

The German text was written by Wilhelm Doignon (1820-1863; see Stadt Weißenburg-Wiki), a teacher, pastor and poet from the town of Weißenburg in Bavaria. Dürrner had already used some of his poems in an earlier publication. In this case he seems to have commissioned translations of three of the six songs from Doignon in whose own collection of poetry they were also published later (1860, pp. 361-2). Interestingly this text is very different from the original version, in fact not a translation but a completely new song. There is no reference to Scotland nor to going to war. Instead Doignon wrote a home song celebrating the beauty of the "Heimathland". It was closer to "Home, Sweet Home" than to Mrs. Jordan's "The Blue Bell of Scotland".


Three German adaptations of this song appeared in a comparatively short time, in the course of 13 years between 1839 and 1852. But more would follow. At first I have to mention a Danish publication. Composer A. P. Bergreen was at that time very busy producing a comprehensive anthology of international national airs, the Folke-Sange og Melodier, Fædrelandske og Fremmede. The first edition had appeared in the '40. and the second one came out in 10 volumes between 1860 and 1870. 

The fourth volume of the latter was dedicated to British songs - Engelske, Skotske og Irske Folk-Sange og Melodier (1862) - and here he included the original version of "The Blue Bell of Scotland" in an arrangement for vocals and piano together with a Danish translation (No. 68, p. 108; notes, p. 175 & p. 182). He had received the song from one Cora Nygaard in 1844. Her father had heard it in London sung by a Scotsman in 1807. Berggreen noted that what she had sent to him was nearly identical to the version in Chappell's book. 

Some years later Hermann Kestner (1810-1890; see here in my blog) tried his hand at the song. We can find his attempt in the second booklet of the Schottische Volkslieder (1868, No. V, pp. 8-9), a part of the short-lived series Ausländische Volkslieder für Sopran, Alt, Tenor und Bass that he had put together with composer Eduard Hille who wrote the arrangements. His source was Graham's book but he preferred to use an "older" text even though he was not sure if this was the one written by Mrs. Grant. His translation is not convincing. Instead it sounds rather stiff. 

The next in the row was Alfons Kissner (1844-1928), a scholar of Romance and English literature who during the 1870s translated a great number of Scottish, Irish and Welsh songs into German. They were made available in a series of songbooks with arrangements by several different musicians, for example his father (see here in my blog). His version "The Blue Bell of Scotland" appeared in Schottische Lieder aus älterer und neuerer Zeit (1874, No. 1, pp. 6-8). He was the first one to offer a translation of Mrs. Grants text. 

Another new adaptation was used in 1886 Lange's Ausländischer Liederschatz (No. 36, p. 44), an anthology of foreign Volkslieder with arrangements for vocals and piano. But this was only a mutilated text of two verses that didn't make much sense. At least Mrs. Jordan is identified as the song's author. 


Now we have altogether six German translations of this song published between 1839 and 1886. But only two of them became popular and were regularly used again: Silcher's "Hinaus, ach hinaus" and "Auf deinen Höh'n", written by Doignon for Dürrner. It is not unreasonable to assume that these two texts survived because they were better singable than the others. Those four adaptations - by Kaufmann, Kestner, Kissner and Lange - all sound, I have already mentioned that, mostly clumsy and stiff and they were later ignored. 

Of course Silcher was immensely popular in Germany. He can be seen as one of the most influential promoters of Volkslieder. His publications were regularly reprinted and the two arrangements of the song remained easily available for a long time. Other editors also adopted this version and arranged it anew. Most important in this respect was Ludwig Erk (1807-1883), music educator and song collector, who edited songbooks for all purposes. His arrangement of "Hinaus, ach hinaus" - he usually called it "Des Mädchens Klage" or "Hochlands Sohn" - for male choirs can be found for example in his colleague Wilhelm Greef's Männerlieder, a very popular collection that was reprinted for several decades (Vol. 9, 1849, here 6th ed., 1869, No. 22, p. 26) and in Erk's own Deutscher Liederschatz for schools (1859, here 4th ed. 1889, No. 135, p. 131). Mixed choirs were supplied with an arrangement for example in the Sängerhain (see 50 Years' Jubilee Edition, 1899, Vol. 2, No. 68, pp. 112-3) and those who preferred to sing this song at home with piano accompaniment found it in his Liederschatz (Vol. 3, 1879, No. 79, p. 74). Interestingly he also had done some research and knew about Mrs. Jordan. In his books she nearly always received credit as the song's author. 

Other arrangements for choirs were published for example in Wilhelm Meyer's Volks-Liederbuch (1873, No. 102, pp. 109-10) - here Kestner's text was also included -, Jakob Blied's Vater Rhein. Liederbuch für deutsche Männerchöre (here 2nd ed., 1897, No. 113, pp. 320-1) and a popular collection with the title Neuester Liederschatz (No. 36, p. 56). 

Editors of songbooks for schools also revived the song. At that time the pupils were plagued with a great number of patriotic ditties but this one had at least a good tune and a certain exotic touch. Arrangements for choirs can be found in collections like Voigt's Volksweisen für die reifere Jugend (H. 1, 9th. ed., 1880, Nr. 32, pp. 25-6), Lützel's Chorlieder für Gymnasien und Realschulen (3rd ed., 1885, No. 80, pp. 172-3), Manderscheid's Frauenchöre für den Gesangsunterricht (1902, No. 108, pp. 192-3) or Polyhymnia. Auswahl von Männerchören für Seminare und höhere Lehranstalten by Bösche, Linnarz and Reinbrecht (Vol. 2, here 10th ed., 1904, No. 34, pp. 46-7). These are only a few examples. 

Arrangements for piano and vocals were also offered regularly. I will only mention here from the '60s Carl Stein's Album volksthümlicher deutscher und ausländischer Lieder (2nd ed. 1868, No. 63, pp. 140-1) and from the '90s Victorie Gervinus, a respected music scholar. The song was included both in her Naturgemässe Ausbildung in Gesang und Klavierspiel (1892, Nr. 61, pp. 190-1), an instruction book for singing and piano playing, and in the posthumously published Volksliederbuch (1896, No. 61, p. 67), a collection of German and international Volkslieder she used to sing at home. 

Johannes Dürrner died in Edinburgh in 1859. But his songs remained popular among choir singers in Germany. The original arrangement of "Auf deinen Höh'n" was reissued several times as sheet music during the '80s and '90s (see Hofmeister September 1885, p. 256; Mai 1892, p. 194; Dezember 1896, p. 626; Januar 1897, p. 23). Meanwhile other arrangers had adopted this version. In Switzerland it was Ignaz Heim (1818-1880; see ADB 50, 1905, pp. 133-5, at wikisource; see here in my blog), a very successful and influential editor of songbooks for choirs, who used it in some of his own collections, both in the Neue Volksgesänge für den Männerchor (Vol. 1, 1865, No. 17, pp. 40-1 & 9th ed., 1882, No. 17, pp. 40-1) and the Sammlung von drei- und vierstimmigen Volksgesängen für Knaben, Mädchen und Frauen. Liederbuch für Schule, Haus und Verein (1869 , No. 93, pp. 162-3). He changed the words a little bit.  Now it was about roses in the Alps and the text sounded even less Scottish. 

In Germany Doignon's original text was sung but the poet's name was lost. The song was usually treated as an anonymous Volkslied even though it wouldn't have been too difficult to check Dürrner's original sheet music for the author's name. This piece was most popular among editors of songbooks for schools and we can find it for example in Lüdicke's Liederwald. Lieder für deutsche Schulen (H. 4, 3rd. ed., 1883, No. 30, p. 41), Theodor Schmidt's Auserlesene weltliche Männerchöre zum Gebrauche in Lehrerbildungsanstalten (2, 1886, No. 44, pp. 180-1) - here Dürrner's arrangement was reprinted -, Robert Schwalm's Schulliederbuch (4th ed., 1899, No. 76, p. 74), Hesse's & Schönstein's Schulliederbuch (H. 3, 5th ed., 1899, No. 90, pp. 137-8), Linnarz' Auswahl von Chorgesängen, a collection for girls' schools (1908, No. 60, pp. 98-9). The latter is interesting because here we can find the song neatly packed together with the other five standards from the British Isles that were at that time among the most popular Volkslieder in Germany (pp. 94-105): "Robin Adair", "My Heart's in the Highlands", "Long, long ago", "The Last Rose of Summer" and "Home, Sweet Home".

Occasionally Silcher's and Dürrner's versions were included together, for example in Böhme's great compendium Volksthümliche Lieder der Deutschen (1895, No. 732, p. 561) or in another songbook for schools, Bösche's & Linnarz' Auswahl von Liedern für deutsche Schulen (H. 4, 2nd ed. ,1900, No. 54-5, pp. 71-3). Sometimes only an English text was printed as in Irmer's Sammlung französischer und englischer Lieder für den Schulgebrauch (2nd ed., 1911, No. 26, p. 81) and in Französische und Englische Volkslieder für den Schulgebrauch by Simon & Stockhaus (1912, Nr. 21, p. 75). These examples should suffice. Not only in Britain but also in Germany a complete bibliography of all editions of the different versions of this song would be a challenging undertaking. 

"The Blue Bell of Scotland" was one of a group of British songs, mostly older popular hits, that were adopted as Volkslieder in Germany. During the 19th century the Volkslied-genre was not only a nationalist undertaking but also had an international dimension. Songs from other countries were accepted without prejudice. Interestingly foreign patriotic and home songs like "Home, Sweet Home", "My Heart's in the Highlands" and of course "The Blue Bell of Scotland" found particular favor. Perhaps German singers could relate to them so well because songs of this type already made up a considerable part of the singing repertoire. 

These imported songs were performed by choirs, became standards in songbooks for schools and the people also sang them at home, accompanied by guitar or piano. In fact in 1899 it was noted that "today even the farmhand and the peasant girl" knew the German versions of "Long, long ago" and "The Last Rose of Summer" (see Fleischer 1899, p. 6). I assume this was also true of "The Blue Bell of Scotland". Most of the time this song was regarded as an anonymous Volkslied. At best the editors referred to it as "schottische Volksweise". Only very few of them - Erk and some others, see also Tappert 1871, p. 812 - managed to name Mrs. Jordan as its original author. But that was not uncommon. For example "Home, Sweet Home" by Payne and Bishop and Bayly's "Long, long ago" (see my article at JustAnotherTune) were usually sold as "Irish" Volkslieder. In these cases it would also not have been too difficult to find out about the real authors. 

Nonetheless it is still interesting to see that the song has survived. Mrs. Jordan surely would have been surprised that her tune was also well known outside of Britain. One may assume that Mr. Dutton of the Dramatic Censor would have been shocked even more about its great success. He had called out this "undeservedly popular" song as a "Namby Pamby insipidity" and regarded it as "convincing proof of the frivolity and depraved taste of the age" and "insignificance itself". But the people did not agree and kept Mrs. Jordan's "old Scottish Ballad" alive for such a long time. 

  • August Bopp, Friedrich Silcher, Stuttgart 1916 
  • Wilhelm Doignon, Gedichte, Meyer, Weissenburg i. R., 1860 , at Google Books 
  • Barbara Eichner, Singing the Songs of Scotland. The German Musician Johann Rupprecht Dürrner and Musical Life in Nineteenth-Century Edinburgh, in: Peter Horton & Bennett Zorn, Nineteenth-Century British Music Studies Vol. 3, London & New York, 2016 (2003), pp. 171-94 
  • Oskar Fleischer, Ein Kapitel vergleichender Musikwissenschaft, in: Sammelbände der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft 1, 1899-1900, pp. 1-53, at the Internet Archive 
  • Karl Goedeke, Grundriß zur Geschichte Der Deutschen Dichtung aus den Quellen, Bd. 3, Abt. 2, Dresden 1881, available at the Internet Archive 
  • Franz Kugler, Skizzenbuch, Reimer, Berlin, 1830, at UB Düsseldorf 
  • Oldwig von Natzmer, Unter Hohenzollern. Denkwürdigkeiten aus dem Leben des General Oldwig von Natzmer. aus der Zeit Friedrich Wilhelms IV., Teil I, 1840-1848, hg. von G. E. v. Natzmer, Perthes, Gotha, 1888, at the Internet Archive 
  • Wilhelm Tappert, Die Frauen und die musikalische Komposition, in: Musikalisches Wochenblatt 2, 1871, pp. 809-12, at the Internet Archive 
  • Sarah Clemmens Waltz, Great Expectations: Beethoven’s Scottish Songs, in: Beethoven Journal 26, 2011, pp. 12-25 

Go back to 2. Mr. Thomson, Mr. Ritson & Mr. Johnson (1802-3)